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如何提高翻译的水平?

  翻译是专业外语学习必须掌握的最后一项基本功。说它是最后一项,并不是不重要,而是因为这项技能是专业外语学习到一定程度才能尝试,换句话说,并不是一开始这种技能就能练习的。说到底,翻译最能体现外语学习者的综合能力。外译汉相对要简单些,而汉译外则需要很好的专业外语基本功。这就是为什么翻译课程到了高年级才开设的原因。如何提高翻译的水平?上海翻译公司为您简单介绍一下。

  翻译是一种跨文化的交际。熟练操作一门外语的人才能在外语与母语间穿梭,游刃有余。这里,我想强调一点,那就是母语的重要性。

  先说句题外话。去年这个时候大家都在讨论上海几所高校自主招生不设语文考试的做法,说实话,这是典型的数典忘祖的行为。这也是我前面一篇博文中提到的“全民外语”的最极端表现。说到底,语文不是“语言文字”,而是“语言文化”。为什么我们总感觉到港台的学者文人的国学功底比我们要厚实些?因为他们可能更能感受到远离汉语文化中心而产生的某种忧虑与渴求。

  学习外语的可能都有这种感受,一开始,你会感觉到外译汉很简单,而汉译外则相对要难度大;而到后来,逐渐的,你会发现,有很多你能理解的外语篇章或句子,竟然很难找到恰如其分的对应表达。那种境况真可谓抓耳挠腮,坐立不安。仔细琢磨,这都是因为母语文化基本功不扎实所致。因此,要想练好翻译,不论是口译还是笔译,都要把自己的母语与文化学好。

  在低年级阶段,可能的翻译练习就是简单的句子或对话,而这些句子或对话都是活学活用的,翻译练习时为了巩固所学知识与语言点。因此,低年级阶段的翻译还谈不上是真正的翻译。不过,低年级阶段要为高年级的翻译学习打好基础。除了扎实的语法知识以外,我们至少还要积累一定的词汇量,稍微宽泛的知识面。这一阶段要多去阅读、甚至背诵文字优美的篇章。

  高年级阶段,除了课上练习的翻译活动外,还有很多种方法来提高自己的翻译水平。广泛阅读各类中外文相关资料,或者对照阅读部分篇章。我有一个经验,比如大家都很挠头的政策性较强的文本翻译,大家可以这样去做。我们首先要熟悉此类文本汉语的表达,一些固定短语与句子都要烂熟心中;其次,当我们去阅读此类的译文时,我们可以在心里默默试译,在业已储备的汉语表述词句中搜寻最恰当的表达。

  说到文学翻译,我们翻译起来困难会更大一些。建议在翻译课上开设“文学翻译赏析”,我们可以找一个甚至是几个译本来跟原文对照阅读,体会其中的优劣,分析译者的技巧与手法,最后尝试着拿出自己的“综合性优选译本”。比如,当我们学习“古诗词俄译赏析”时,我们可以找尽可能多的译例来比较阅读,有时候,这种阅读还会帮助我们更深入地理解原文的意境与内涵。如李白的《静夜思》,我在网上就找到了6个不同的译例,每个译例都有它独到的地方,如果我们把这6个译本放到一起比较,再对应原文,细细体会其中的些微差异,相信一定会大有裨益。

  关于翻译我还有一点儿个人的体会。我曾听一位专家作报告,他建议大家每天翻译五句话。如果天天坚持下来,那会是多少?!其实,翻译练习可以随时随地进行。比如,我们在看电视新闻时,你可以把新闻标题口译出来;看电视剧、电影时,可以把有趣的对话翻译一下,哪怕是主要意思也可;看书上网时,你也可以随时拿出一段来译译。此外,国内有些网站上有些带中文字幕的俄文原版电影与电视剧,大家不妨来看看,边看边听边译,还可以挑错呢。大家不妨一试。

  我如今有个习惯,这两年参加的各种会议挺多,有时候还要听一些长篇大论。我自取其乐,把发言人的话即兴翻译成俄语记下来,当然,我也是记他的发言要点,遇到一时译不出的,记下来,回来后赶紧翻阅字典。

  处处留心皆学问啊!我相信这句话。

  Translation is the last basic skill that must be mastered in professional foreign language learning. It's not unimportant to say that it's the last one, but it's because this skill can only be tried after professional foreign language learning to a certain extent. In other words, it can't be practiced at the beginning. In the final analysis, translation can best reflect the comprehensive ability of foreign language learners. Translating from foreign to Chinese is relatively simple, while translating from Chinese to foreign requires good professional foreign language skills. This is why translation courses are not offered until the senior year.

  Translation is a kind of cross-cultural communication. Only those who are proficient in a foreign language can shuttle between the foreign language and their mother tongue. Here, I want to emphasize the importance of mother tongue.

  Let's start with a digression. At this time last year, everyone was discussing the practice of independent enrollment of several colleges and universities in Shanghai without setting up a language examination. To be honest, this is a typical act of forgetting one's ancestors. This is also the most extreme expression of "foreign language for all" mentioned in my previous blog post. In the final analysis, Chinese is not "language" but "language culture". Why do we always feel that scholars from Hong Kong and Taiwan have more solid knowledge of Chinese culture than we do? Because they may be more able to feel the anxiety and desire of being far away from the Chinese culture center.

  Learning a foreign language may have this feeling. At first, you will feel that translating from Chinese into foreign language is very simple, while translating from Chinese into foreign language is relatively difficult. Later, gradually, you will find that there are many foreign language chapters or sentences that you can understand, but it is difficult to find the appropriate corresponding expression. That kind of situation can be described as scratching one's ears, fidgeting. If you think about it carefully, it's all because the basic skills of mother tongue culture are not solid. Therefore, if you want to do a good job in translation, whether it is interpretation or translation, you should learn your mother tongue and culture well.

  In the lower grade stage, the possible translation practice is simple sentences or dialogues, and these sentences or dialogues are flexible, in order to consolidate the knowledge and language points. Therefore, translation in the lower grades is not really translation. However, the lower grades should lay a good foundation for the higher grades. In addition to a solid knowledge of grammar, we should at least accumulate a certain vocabulary, a little broad knowledge. At this stage, we should read and even recite more beautiful texts.

  In the senior stage, in addition to the translation activities in class, there are many ways to improve their translation level. Read all kinds of related materials in Chinese and foreign, or read some chapters. I have an experience. For example, we can do the translation of texts with strong policy nature, which we are all scratching our heads. First of all, we should be familiar with the Chinese expression of this kind of text, and some fixed phrases and sentences should be familiar with our hearts. Secondly, when we read this kind of translation, we can try to translate it silently in our hearts, and search for the most appropriate expression in the reserved Chinese expressions.

  When it comes to literary translation, it will be more difficult for us to translate. It is suggested that "literary translation appreciation" should be set up in the translation class. We can find one or even several versions to compare with the original text, experience the advantages and disadvantages, analyze the skills and techniques of the translators, and finally try to come up with our own "comprehensive optimal translation". For example, when we learn "appreciation of Russian translation of ancient poetry", we can find as many translation examples as possible to compare reading. Sometimes, this kind of reading will help us to understand the artistic conception and connotation of the original text more deeply. For example, in Li Bai's "meditation on a quiet night", I have found six different translation examples on the Internet, each of which has its own unique features. If we compare these six versions together, and then compare them with the original, I believe it will be of great benefit to have a detailed understanding of some slight differences.

  I have some personal experience about translation. I once heard a report from an expert who suggested that you translate five sentences every day. In fact, translation practice can be carried out anytime and anywhere. For example, when we watch TV news, you can interpret the news headlines; when we watch TV plays and movies, you can translate interesting dialogues, even the main meaning; when we read and surf the Internet, you can also translate a paragraph at any time. In addition, there are some original Russian movies and TV dramas with Chinese subtitles on some domestic websites. You may as well take a look at them, listen to them and translate them. You can also pick up mistakes. You might as well have a try.

  Now I have a habit of attending many meetings in the past two years, and sometimes listening to long speeches. For my own pleasure, I translated the speaker's words into Russian impromptu and wrote them down. Of course, I also wrote down the main points of his speech. If I couldn't translate them for a while, I wrote them down. When I came back, I quickly turned to the dictionary.

  I believe in that.

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